'Journal of Academic Research for Humanities' is a double-blind, Peer-Reviewed, Open Accessed, International research journal based in Pakistan.
Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Exploring the Effects of Differentiated Instruction on the Comprehension Skills of Students in English at Secondary Level


 This paper aims at finding out the impacts of differentiation on the comprehension skills of students and their learning achievement. The study focused on students with multiple abilities, and different intelligence; who need extra attention, time and curriculum foundation during the course of study time. Differentiated instruction is modifying teaching methodology according to the needs, interests or mental level of the learners so that the ultimate academic goal is achieved. This technique, though slow, yet it been proven to be effective in boosting the classroom learning environment. The mode of the study was quasi-experimental with a pretest and post-test. The study was conducted on 24  students of class IX in English in the district of Shikarpur, subjects using a convenient sampling technique. The selected sample was assigned to the experimental & control group. A pre-test on the reading comprehension and solving exercises was taken as a diagnostic assessment. The result produced that 24% (6) students could succeed in reading only the ninth-class English subject. Hence, the differentiated instruction approach was adopted by changing the teaching method i.e.
minimizing the reading material, intelligence and mental approach, and allowing to read a part of the passage and solve easy questions related to the passage. Later on, as per planning, a post-test was conducted where the results showed that 68% of students achieved remarkable progress in English reading & writing. This study provided encouraging insights into using differentiated instructions in improving language comprehension skills as compared to traditional teaching methods.


Differentiated instruction, mixed-ability classroom, comprehension skills.

PDF File of the Paper


  1. References:
  2. Ahmed, I., Thomas, M., & Hamid, S. (2020). Improving Reading Comprehension Skill Through Interactive Reading Strategies of Grade 10th Students at Public Secondary School. Pakistan Journal of Educational
  3. Research, 3 (2), 93-109.
  4. Al-rsa’i, M. S., &Shugairat, M. F. (2019). Technology Driven Differentiated Instruction in Science Teaching. International Journal of Education, 11(2), 15. https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v11i2.14700
  5. Cardimona, K. (2018). Differentiating Mathematics Instruction for Secondary-Level English Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom. TESOL Journal, 9(1), 17–57. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.303
  6. Celik, S. (2019). Can Differentiated Instruction Create an Inclusive Classroom with Diverse Learners in an Elementary School Setting? Journal of Education and Practice, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.7176/JEP
  7. Chien, C.-W. (2012). Differentiated Instruction in an Elementary School EFL Classroom. TESOL Journal, 3(2), 280–291. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.18
  8. Directorate General Monitoring and Evaluation, S. E. (2021). Annual Report 2020-21. Karachi: Sindh Schools Monitoring System.
  9. Erickson, C. (2006). Differentiated Instruction: Applying the Work of C.A. Tomlinson in the Primary Literacy Classroom. 1-77.
  10. Firmender, J. M., Reis, S. M., & Sweeny, S. M. (2013). Reading Comprehension and Fluency Levels Ranges across Diverse Classrooms: The Need for Differentiated Reading Instruction and Content. Gifted Child
  11. Quarterly, 57(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016986212460084
  12. Fox, J., & Hoffman, W. (2011). The Differentiated Instruction Book of Lists. Jossey-Bass. Heydon, R. (2003). Literature Circles as a Differentiated Instructional Strategy for Including ESL Students in Mainstream
  13. Classrooms. In Canadian Modern Language Review (Vol. 59, Issue 3, pp. 463–475). University of Toronto Press. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.59.3.463
  14. Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi. (2021). Measuring the Impact of COVID-19 on Education in Pakistan.
  15. Ismajli, H., &Imami-Morina, I. (2018). Differentiated instruction: Understanding and applying interactive strategies to meet the needs of all the students. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 207–218.
  16. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11315a
  17. James, D., Garbutt, A., & Simister, N. (2017). Quasi-Experimental approaches. Intrac For Civil Society, 1-6.
  18. Komang Arie Suwastini, N. (2021). Differentiated Instruction for EFL Classroom. Tell-us Journal, 7(1), 14–41.
  19. https://doi.org/10.22202/tus.2021.v7i1.4719
  20. Mills, G. E., & Gray, L. R. (2019). Educational Research (12th ed.). Pearson.
  21. MOE, Pakistan, (2006). National Curriculum for the English Language. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan.
  22. NanangSuprayogi, M., & Valcke, M. (2016). Differentiated Instruction in Primary Schools: Implementation and Challenges in Indonesia. In International Scientific Researches Journal (Vol. 72, Issue 6).Exploring the Effects of Differentiated Instruction Journal of Academic Research for Humanities 2(3), Sep-2022
  23. Nurasiah, L., Priatna, B. A., &Priatna, N. (2020). The effect of differentiated instruction on student mathematical communication ability. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1469(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742- 6596/1469/1/012160
  24. Roy, A., Guay, F., & Valois, P. (2013). Teaching to address diverse learning needs: Development and validation of a Differentiated Instruction Scale. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(11), 1186–
  25. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2012.7436
  26. Santangelo, T., & Tomlinson, C. A. (2012). Teacher Educators’ Perceptions and Use of Differentiated Instruction Practices: An Exploratory Investigation. Action in Teacher Education, 34(4), 309–327.
  27. https://doi.org/10.1080/01626620.2012.7170
  28. Smale-Jacobse, A. E., Meijer, A., Helms-Lorenz, M., & Maulana, R. (2019). Differentiated Instruction in Secondary Education: A Systematic Review of Research Evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.
  29. Suprayogi, M. N., Valcke, M., & Godwin, R. (2017). Teachers and their implementation of differentiated instruction in the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 67, 291– 301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.06.020
  30. Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in a Mixed-Ability Classrooms (2 ed., Vol. 1). Alexandria, USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Develop Development.
  31. Tomlinson, C. A., & Imbeau, B. M. (2010). Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom. Alexandria, USA: ASCD.
  32. Tomlinson, C. A., Brighton, C., Hertzberg, H., Callahan, C. M., Moon, T. R., Brimijoin, K., et al. (2003).
  33. D ifferentiating Instruction in Response to Student Readiness, Interest, and LearningProfile in cademically Diverse Classrooms: A Review of Literature. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 119-145.
  34. White, H., & Sabarwal, S. (2014). QuasiExperimental Design and methods. UNICEF.
  35. Walpole, Sharon, & McKenna, M. C. (2007). Differentiated reading instruction : strategies for
  36. the primary grades. Guilford Press